Wednesday, November 14, 2007 Match summaryDiv 1 competitors were greeted with a fairly straightforward easy involving train driving and a brutal medium that was a train wreck (with only 21% of submissions correct). The level of competition was extremely strong, featuring a large number of targeteers and tournament winners. Entering the challenge phase, Petr was in 22nd place after a fairly late resubmit. I had pretty much written off his chances, because I do not learn well, but he clawed his way back to the top with 8/9 successful challenges (and a few failed submissions from his competitors). In the process, he identified every incorrect solution in his room, except the one Psyho was able to snatch first. I suggest we add "system test" to his list of nicknames. In div II the top 4 were the only ones to solve the hard correctly, with the powerful Mace_Windu forcing his way into top spot with fast submissions and three successful challenges. The ProblemsPunctuationCleanerUsed as: Division Two  Level One:
Competitors took a few different approaches with this problem. Perhaps the most straightforward approach is to walk through the string character by character, and deal with the excess punctuation as we go. When we encounter nonpunctuation characters, we add them to our return string. When we encounter exclamation points or question marks, we do not add them to the return immediately, but instead note their occurence. Then, when the group of punctuation characters ends (when we see a nonpunctuation or the end of the string), we add in the single '!' or a '?' to mark the group we saw. Alternatively, we could use a generic "replace" function. There's too many possible combinations of '!' and '?' characters to do this all in one shot  but we can get the job done by processing the string a number of times. For example, if we repeatedly replace "!!" with "!", we'll eventually convert any number of "!" characters into one. With question marks, we need to replace each of "??", "?!", and "!?" into a single question mark. Because the whole string is only 50 characters, we can simply do all of these replacements 50 times and be sure we've caught everything. Reader Activity Funtime: There's also a very tidy solution available using Regular Expressions. Try building the two appropriate "replace" commands? Or, for bonus kudos, can you solve the problem with one replace command? (Hint: I don't know, because I am bad with regular expressions). TrainyardUsed as: Division Two  Level Two: Used as: Division One  Level One:
This problem doesn't require anything fancy in terms of algorithms with long names, but did require some care to ensure the train wouldn't go "off the tracks", so to speak. Basically, we find the shortest path to each location, and then count how many of those locations are reachable using the amount of fuel given. A breadthfirst search would work. Or Dijkstra, or BellmanFord, or FloydWarshall. But the simplest approach is probably plain old depthfirst search. Starting at the 'S', recursively explore every direction the train can go. It takes some care to ensure that we only go in directions that follow the tracks, but this part should be straightforward. As part of the recursive call, pass along the amount of fuel remaining. The base case for the recursion is when the fuel reaches 0. Because the maximum fuel available is only 10, we don't need any further memoization or tricks to ensure this will run on time. In fact, we can get ourselves into trouble if we use a "visited" array to stop processing certain paths. If we mark a certain location as visited when we see it on one path, we can prevent ourselves from considering it again as part of a shorter path. This means we may not reach some locations further down that track, leading to a wrong answer. Reader Activity Funtime: If we had more fuel available, we'd need to use either a better shortest path algorithm or do some memoization. Estimate how many fuel units could be available before the naive solution described above fails (using normal TopCoder constraints). JollyJumpersUsed as: Division Two  Level Three:
Once again, we're faced with a number of possible searchbased solutions, though in this case we're searching through more of an abstract state space than the trainyard above. In checking some of the test cases before the contest, I found a lot of problem instances were enjoyably tricky, at least as a human whose search algorithms are a little slow. All of the successful solutions used breadth first search (BFS). To do a BFS, we start at our initial position and explore the states that are one move away, then those that are two moves away, continuing out until there are no reachable positions we haven't looked at. To accomplish this, we store a the list of game states we want to evaluate in a queue and process the states in order until the queue is empty. For each state, we need to store two things: the current state of the board, and the score we've received by the time we've reached this state. Each of the 16 squares on the board either has a pawn or doesn't, so we can store the state of the board conveniently in a 16 bit number (which makes it easy to memoize). We track score so that we can identify the highest score we've reached and also so that we know whether we need to evaluate a position. It's possible we may reach the same position in multiple different ways with different scores. We only want to evaluate a position again if we're reaching it a better way (that is, with a higher score) than we did previously, so for each state we remember the highest score we've reached that state with. It's worth noting why depth first search (DFS) is more difficult to implement here. The problem is that we need to memo our results in order to run on time, but we also need to avoid cycles while processing. Suppose we're evaluating state A, which can move to state B. To evaluate state A, we thus need to evaluate state B. While evaluating state B, we have to avoid evaluating state A or else we'll have an endless loop. However, suppose the best chain of moves from B is B>A>C. Our evaluation of A will be fine, as we'll eventually try A>C, and A>B>A>C wouldn't do us any good anyways (for this problem). However, as a side effect of calculating the right answer for A we calculate the wrong answer for B and store that in a permanent memo. The answer for B is wrong because we avoided considering the best path because it included A. The moral of this sad tale is that DFS is often difficult to memoize correctly, and should be used with caution when a search can involve cycles. Reader Activity Funtime: If the cost of moving horizontally was changed to zero, how could we represent state more efficiently? MarbleMachineUsed as: Division One  Level Two:
Finally we get to a problem with no searching  just a simple simulation of a fairly easy to simulate system. The only reason this is not an Easy is the constraint on t: we might need to simulate up to 100,000,000 moves. There are a number of possible approaches here. We could simulate the machine over a shorter time and watch for patterns (and this is probably the simplest solution, though tricky to get right). We could try to reduce the machine into a simpler one that's faster to simulate. Actually, I don't know if we could do that. It sounds hard. Anyways, the approach used in the reference solution (and the one I'll describe here) is to aggregate the moves into "multiple moves" so that we can simulate time in larger chunks. If we store the current number of marbles on each position as a vector, then the actions of all the devices at each point in time can be described as a matrix with one row for each position (meaning, for the largest case, we'll have a 64x64 matrix because there are at most 64 squares on our grid). Constructing the matrix for the actions on a given time period is fairly simple. If the marbles move South from location 0,0 to location 0,1, then we simply need to put a 1 in the matrix entry connecting those two locations. If the marbles from a location are dropped, we just end up with all 0s in that location's matrix row. The slightly more difficult case is when we bring in marbles from the central supply. The simplest way to handle this is to add a constant 1 to our vector  and another row and column to our action matrices to keep this number at 1. This number can then be referenced whenever we need to add new marbles to various grid locations. To be clear, processing actions as matrices doesn't help by itself. The benefit is reaped once we start combining matrices (by matrix multiplication) so that we can process many moves at once. One problem here is that the devices' action sequences are different lengths. To manage this, we can simply repeat each device's sequence out to a length of 60. As 60 is evenly divisible by all of the possible lengths, this ensures that they line up. We can combine these 60 matrices into 1, and thus process 60 time units at a time. The remainder can be processed one by one as we know there will be at most 59 extra to process. However, 100,000,000 / 60 is still probably too big. To fix this, we simply keep combining groups of 60 together until the denominator in that equation becomes sufficiently large. A clever approach for this part is to repeatedly square the matrix and apply it to the vector at appropriate times: while t>0 { if (t & 1)vector = vector * matrix matrix = matrix * matrix t = t / 2 } This method of matrix exponentiation is a handy thing to have in your tool belt, and can be used on a variety of problems. Once we've applied all our action matrices, all that's left is to read through our vector and find the location with the highest number of marbles. Reader Activity Funtime: Imagine a related problem where you're given the number of marbles at each location at t=0 and are asked to find the state at t=100,000,000. Under what circumstances is this problem solvable? UnjumpersUsed as: Division One  Level Three:
The first problem we have to deal with here is the size of the problem space. There are enough possible layouts that bruteforce solution is out of the question, at least it is if we're storing state as 100 bits or as a 100 character string. If we're going to use a search based solution (which is probably the simplest plan) then we have to simplify our representation of the state. A key realization is that pawn positions 3 squares from each other are effectively equivalent. For example, consider spaces numbered {0, 3, 6, 9, etc.}. If we have pawns at positions 3 and 9, we could shift them to positions 0 and 3 using the superjump move without disturbing any other pawns. In effect, we don't have to remember exactly where the pawns are, we only have to know how many are on positions numbered {0,3,6,9, etc.}, how many are on positions {1,4,7,10, etc.}, and how many are on positions {2,5,8,11, etc.}. We can represent an entire layout with just 3 numbers, making our state space much more manageable. We'll call the numbers A, B, and C. They have maximums of 34, 33, and 33 respectively, leaving us with a manageable space of 35*34*34 = 40460 states. From here, we can search adjacent states using our "jump" and "unjump" moves. If A and B are greater than 0, we can arrange the pawns such that we can jump an A over a B to become a C. Thus we subtract 1 from A and B, and add one to C. Similarly, we could unjump a B pawn to produce an A pawn and a C pawn. There are only 6 such possible moves, so by using a memoized search we can quickly identify which target states are reachable from our start. It takes a bit of a leap of faith to believe that the above solution will always work correctly. Indeed, if we weren't always guaranteed free space then this type of solution wouldn't always work. If you want to follow through the actual moves used, there are more direct solutions available that systematically reduce layouts into lexicographically first, canonical forms (of which there are a total of 5, including the empty board). Because all of the moves are reversible, we know that this canonical form will be the same if and only if the original layouts are reachable from each other. Reader Activity Funtime: Describe an invariant that proves "*.." can never transform into "..*" (see this hint for one approach if you're stuck). Bonus Activity Funtime: How would you solve this problem on a 100x100 board (assuming that there is sufficient free space on the board, and the moves were extended to work vertically)? How many canonical forms are there in the 2d version? 
